Monday, January 20, 2020
The Golden House of Nero After years of fighting and civil wars, order was finally established throughout the Roman empire during the first century AD with the rule of Augustus. Peace and prosperity followed with the reign of Augustus and with the emperors that came into control after him, and it was during this time that Roman architecture began to move away from the traditional Hellenistic and Greek influences and generate its own style. It was also during this time that Rome was subjected to numerous horrendous fires that destroyed much of the city when it was under the control of the emperor Nero. Considered a tyrant and self-centered even for an aristocrat at the time, Nero became very unpopular towards the end of his reign, but not before he was able to commission the construction of a marvelous villa for himself stretching over two hundred acres in the center of Rome where the fires had destroyed most of the original buildings. Commonly called The Golden House of Nero, it was originally given the more formal name of Domus Aurea, and was and still is considered one of the most extravagant projects ever ordered by a Roman emperor to be created. The most significant and majestic feature of the Domus Aurea is the Esquiline wing, or the main palace, located about two hundred meters northeast of the Coliseum, formally known as the Flavian Amphitheater. After the fires of 104 AD, Trajan had his engineers fill in the Esquiline wing of the Domus Aurea so as to secure the elevated terrace for his Baths. By covering the Esquiline wing with earth, it was free from pillaging, fires, considerable wearing from weather, and other harmful effects over the years. Unfortunately, only a sizable fragment remains of the palace, and the original extent of the scores of rooms that have been recovered is unknown. Much can be extrapolated from these remaining bits of the structure, though, and like a puzzle, archeologist and architects have been able to piece together the scraps and come to fairly detailed conclusions. One major point that has been looked at closely but has not been completely decided upon is the original number of stories the palace contained. There are no indications of a second story beyond the two narrow staircases back in the upper north service area of the wing.
Sunday, January 12, 2020
1.An undercover drug informant learned from a mutual friend that Philip Friedman Ã¢â¬Å"knew where to get marijuana.Ã¢â¬ The informant asked Friedman three times to get him some marijuana, and Friedman agreed after the third request. Shortly thereafter, Friedman sold the informant a small amount of the drug. The informant later offered to sell Friedman three pounds of marijuana. They negotiated the price and then made the sale. Friedman was tried for trafficking in drugs. He argued entrapment. Was Friedman entrapped? Argument for Friedman: The undercover agent had to ask three times before Friedman sold him a small amount of drugs. A real drug dealer, predisposed to commit the crime, leaps at an opportunity to sell. If the government spends time and money luring innocent people into the commission of crimes, all of us are the losers. Argument for the Government: Government officials suspected Friedman of being a sophisticated drug dealer, and they were right. When he had a chance to buy three pounds, a quantity only a dealer would purchase, he not only did so, but he bargained with skill, showing a working knowledge of the business. Friedman was not entrappedÃ¢â¬âhe was caught. I agree with Friedman not only did the informant ask for drugs, but he asked him constantly after he said no which could have easily influenced Friedman to sell the informant the drugs. 2. Conley owned video poker machines. Although they are outlawed in Pennsylvania, he placed them in bars and clubs. He used profits from the machines to buy more machines. Is he guilty of money laundering? Yes he is guilty of money laundering because he took the proceeds of a criminal act and used the money to promote the crime of his poker machines. 3.Karin made illegal firearm purchases at a gun show. At her trial, she alleged that she had committed this crime because her boyfriend had threatened to harm her and her two daughters if she did not. Her lawyerÃ asked the judge to instruct the jury that the prosecution had an obligation to prove beyond a reasonable doubt that Karin had acted freely. Instead, the judge told the jury that Karin had the burden of proving duress by a preponderance of the evidence. Who is correct? The judge is correct. In this situation Karin is trying to plead not guilty because she was under duress, so she will have to have evidence to prove that she acted under duress 4. An informant bought drugs from Dorian. The police obtained a search warrant to search DorianÃ¢â¬â¢s house. But before they acted on the warrant, they sent the informant back to try again. This time, Dorian said he did not have any drugs. The police then acted on the warrant and searched his house. Did the police have probable cause? Yes because the informant had claimed to bought drugs from Dorian before. 5.Shawn was caught stealing letters from mailboxes. After pleading guilty, he was sentenced to two months in prison and three years supervised release. One of the supervised release conditions required him to stand outside a post office for eight hours wearing a signboard stating, Ã¢â¬Å"I stole mail. This is my punishment.Ã¢â¬ He appealed this requirement on the grounds that it constituted cruel and unusual punishment. Do you agree? Yes. The punishment will be breaking the eight amendment because of standing outside a post office holding a sign stating I stole mail will not only be degrading, but also an unusual and cruel punishment. 1.At approximately 7:50 p.m, bells at the train station rang and red lights flashed, signaling an express trainÃ¢â¬â¢s approach. David Harris walked onto the tracks, ignoring a yellow line painted on the platform instructing people to stand back. Two men shouted to Harris, warning him to get off the tracks. The trainÃ¢â¬â¢s engineer saw him too late to stop the train, which was traveling at approximately 55 mph. The train struck and killed Harris as itÃ passed through the station. HarrisÃ¢â¬â¢s widow sued the railroad, arguing that the railroadÃ¢â¬â¢s negligence caused her husbandÃ¢â¬â¢s death. Evaluate her argument. Harris wife really does not have an argument because the railroad did everything in their power to prevent his death. Harris will be at fault for his own death 2. Ryder leased a truck to Florida food service powers, an employee, drove it to make deliveries . He noticed that the strap used to close the rear door was frayed, and he asked Ryder to fix it. Ryder failed to do so in spite of numerous requests. The strap broke, and Powers replaced it with a nylon rope. Later, when Powers was attempting to close the rear door, the nylon rope broke and he fell, sustaining severe injuries to his neck and back. He sued Ryder. The trial court found that PowerÃ¢â¬â¢s attachment of the replacement rope was a superseding cause, relieving Ryder of any liability, and granted summary judgment for Ryder. Powers appealed. How should the appellate court rule. The decision should be based on the state laws of contributory or comparative negligence because although Powers told Ryder to fix the rope you can make the same argument that by Powers switching ropes also help contributed to his injury. 3. A new truck, manufactured by General Motors Corp. (GMC), stalled in rush hour traffic on a busy interstate highway because of a defective alternator, which caused a complete failure of the truckÃ¢â¬â¢s electrical system. The driver stood nearby and waved traffic around his stalled truck. A panel truck approached the GMC truck, and immediately behind the panel truck, Davis was driving a Volkswagen fastback. Because of the panel truck, Davis was unable to see the stalled GMC truck. The panel truck swerved out of the way of the GMC truck, and Davis drove straight into it. The accident killed him. DavisÃ¢â¬â¢s widow sued GMC. GMC moved for summary judgment, alleging Gmc could be violators of Negligence Per Se because the brand new automobile should have nothing wrong with it that could threaten the lives of drivers automobiles should be created to protect drivers as much as possible. Gmc is responsible for factual causation and foreseeable harm. By giving the man a defective vehic le I believe any accident which happened on the road or streets can be foreseeable. 4. You be the Judge Writing Problem When Thomas and Susan Tamplin were shopping at Star Lumber with their six-year-old daughter Ann Marie, a 150-pound roll of vinylÃ flooring fell on the girl, seriously injuring her head and pituitary gland. Ann was clearly entitled to recover for the physical harm, such as her fractured skull. The plaintiffs also sought recovery for potential future harm. Their medical expert was prepared to testify that although Ann would probably develop normally, he could not rule out the slight possibility that her pituitary injury might prevent her from sexually maturing. Is Ann entitled to damages for future harm? Argument for Ann: This was a major trauma, and it is impossible to know the full extent of the future harm. Sexual maturation is a fundamental part of life; if there is a possibility that Ann will not develop normally, she is entitled to present her case to a jury and receive damages. Argument for Star Lumber: A plaintiff may not recover for specul ative harm. The Ã¢â¬Å"slight possibilityÃ¢â¬ that Ann could fail to develop is not enough for her to take her case to the jury. If I was the judge I would not rule out the possibility that Ann could suffer harm in the future. I would request that Ann obtain documents from doctors that will help prove that the accident that happened could cause future damages. 5. Irving was a lawyer who prepared income tax returns for Maroevich. Irving agreed to draft a will for Maroevich, leaving all of the property to MaroevichÃ¢â¬â¢s sister, Biakanja. When Maroevich died, the probate court refused to accept the will because Irving had failed to have the signatures properly witnessed. As a result, Biakanja inherited only one-eighth of the estate. She sued Irving, who defended by saying that he had no duty of due care to Biakanja because all his dealings were with Maroevich and none were with her. Do you agree?
Saturday, January 4, 2020
Define multiculturalism, cultural, race, worldview, cultural pluralism, cultural deficit, and post-structuralism. Multiculturalism. Multiculturalism is a philosophical movement to ensure all members of a pluralistic society are reflected in the organization or school. Cultural. Cultural refers to the shared beliefs, behaviors, and values by a human group. Race. Race relates to the physical characteristics of a person. World View. World view is based a personÃ¢â¬â¢s view of an person or society and their point of view. Cultural Pluralism. Cultural pluralism is where micro groups exist in the larger group or society they are a part of. They maintain their unique identities. Cultural Deficit. In education, a cultural deficit refers to a model where others view students that were minority or poor as deficient due to differences in language, attitudes towards school, and social attitudes and practices. Post Structuralism. Post structuralism is a philosophical response to structuralism. Do you agree with RosadoÃ¢â¬â¢s definition of multiculturalism? Would you add or delete information to/from his definition? I do not totally agree with RosadoÃ¢â¬â¢s (1996) definition of multiculturalism. Specifically, I donÃ¢â¬â¢t believe itÃ¢â¬â¢s necessary to acknowledge a personÃ¢â¬â¢s differences. Quite frankly, I would be horrified. I believe it is important to give every person an opportunity based on qualifications and the needs of the organization. Rosado (1996) also writes in hisShow MoreRelatedMulticulturalism Is The Preservation Of Different Cultures Or Cultural Identities Within A Unified Society?1669 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pages Multiculturalism is the preservation of different cultures or cultural identities within a unified society, as a state or nation (Dictionary.com, 2013). Canada is a country full of many different ethnicities and cultures, but even though Canada is housing them, itÃ¢â¬â¢s just not working. Problems in multiculturalism are most prominent in three areas, the communities, the schools and the workforce. Multiculturalism in the communities are facing struggle because of the citiesÃ¢â¬â¢ appeal to new immigrantsRead MoreA Brief Note On Multiculturalism And Culture And The Different Variations Of How Cultural Categories Are Separated And Defined984 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pages1. Describe the meaning of multiculturalism in your own words. In this essay the emphasis is to be on culture and the different variations of how cultural categories are separated and defined. The primary focus is that of multiculturalism. Multiculturalism, as defined by Merriam-Webster is Ã¢â¬Å"relating to or including many different culturesÃ¢â¬ . It is multicultural in adjective form. I find this interesting because an adjective is something that doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t stand alone, it needs a helper to make it becomeRead MoreMulticulturalism : Is It A Issue?1735 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesOver the years multiculturalism has fast become a pressing issue in our modern world. Especially in the western world where liberal democracy is embraced as the dominant philosophy. As Globalization occurs the borders between countries previously writ in stone are now blurred. Globalization has increased the inter-connectedness of our world. The world appears to have become smaller. Mankind as a species has become more interconnected than ever before, due to technolo gical advancements, such as theRead MoreAssignment 2 : A Multicultural Society807 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesPaper A multicultural society is where a diverse group of races, cultures, and different ethical background coexist together in a country, state, city, community or neighborhoods. Basically, a ground of people from different backgrounds living together in the same community. Multiculturalism is when these diverse groups have the same rights and treatment in society or by society. Multiculturalism is when different racial groups and cultures have the same opportunities, and equal rights without prejudiceRead MoreMulticulturalism Should Not Be Accepted1665 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesMulticulturalism can be defined as the promotion of the mixture of different cultural, religious and linguistic group which include the idea of equal respect toward differences and acceptance of the contribution of immigrants to a country (Zanca, 2015). It has been considered as a controversial topic which has been debated from the middle of the 20th century especially in European countries and in Australia. In discu ssing to what extent should cultural differences be accepted in a multicultural societyRead MoreCultural Appropriation And Multiculturalism :960 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesSociology 135 | December 4, 2015 Cultural appropriation and multiculturalism are seen as opposites that can either be seen separately or together, as in one example portraying both. Cultural appropriation is a dominant group participating or expressing in a minority groupsÃ¢â¬â¢ aspect of their culture. Prior to the dominant groupÃ¢â¬â¢s partaking in this, the aspect of the culture would have to be frowned upon or have been socially unaccepted. The main part that makes something cultural appropriation is that onceRead MoreThe Government of Canada and Multiculturalism Essay examples1670 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesÃ¢â¬Å"MulticulturalismÃ¢â¬ entered public speech in the late 1960s and early 1970s in Canada that focused on unique cultural diversity, nationalities, and ethnicity across the nation. Multiculturalism and Immigration are important factors in the development of Canada to attain a strong multicultural example of economic stability, social and political growth which leads to the emergence of CanadaÃ¢â¬â¢s identity and culture. The artefact design indicates the deep understanding of Canadian Multiculturalism whichRead More The Complex Relationship Between Multiculturalism and Feminism837 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesThe Complex Relationship Between Multiculturalism and Feminism These days, it seems that multiculturalism is generally an assumed good. Increased acknowledgement of diversity and cultural sensitivity seem to be steps toward leveling the playing field for all human beings. And that is the goal of much scholarship and activism, right--to secure and ensure human rights across the board? That is one of global feminismÃ¢â¬â¢s aims, so it would seem that multiculturalism would help, not hinder, feministRead MoreMulticulturalism Is Closely Associated With Identity Politics1123 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesFor multiculturalism we understand that is the ideology or social organization model that affirms the possibility of living harmoniously in society between those groups or ethnic communities that are cultural, religious or linguistically different. Welcomes the cultural diversity and its starting point that no group has to lose their culture and own identity. The dominant culture has a consciousness of superiority over the dominated culture, showing attitudes of rejection, discrimination, and derogatoryRead MoreMulticultural Competence Of School Psychologists1031 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesmultiracial children with racial, ethnic, cultural, and linguistic differences; multiple learning styles; native language learning; and changing family constellations. Some of todayÃ¢â¬â¢s learners also come from families with multiple and/or generational family traumas and dysfunctions. These challenges and the shifts in student enrollment demographics are creating new demands on schoolsÃ¢â¬â¢ teaching and learning services. Multiculturalism, as practiced in the schools, is a process
Friday, December 27, 2019
Abstract This paper reflects meta-analysis of how vital risk management is to an association. Additionally distinguished are those events or issues that emerge during the course of an engagement that may affect the successful outcome of the project. This paper closes with showing new headings to highlight the steps included in diminishing the dangers that present themselves when arranging an IT anticipate. Keywords: IT, management, organization, planning, project, risk, technology 2. Introduction 2.1 IT Project Management IT project management is the methodology of planning, organizing and delineating responsibility for the completion of organizations specific information technology goals. As per theÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦2.2 Definition of Risk Project risk is defined by PMI as an uncertain event or condition that, if it occurs, has a positive or negative effect on a project s objectives . A Risk can be virtually anything. It can be the upcoming implementation of an activity that has never been performed before and therefore the outcome or duration is very uncertain. It can be the potential loss of a key project personnel resource to another project. It can be the unknown status of funding from the customer side for an upcoming phase of the project. It can be the use of a new technology for the overall solution or for accomplishing specific tasks on the project. 2.3 Risk Management According to project Management Tips, Ã¢â¬Å"Risk management is the organized process of identifying, analyzing, and responding to project Risk. It includes maximizing the probability and consequences of positive events and minimizing the probability and consequences of adverse events to project objectives.Ã¢â¬ Essentially, risk management can occurs anytime, when an investor or a project manager analyzes to compute the possible reason for losses in an investment and then takes the appropriate action (or inaction) given their investment objectives and risk forbearance. 2.4 IT Project Risk Management IT project risk management is therefore, the process of identifying, mitigating, and controlling these known risks, in order to increase the probability of meeting project objectives thus increasing the
Thursday, December 19, 2019
Complete Case Study on page 153 of textbook (Boeing). Specifically answer the two questions at the end of the case study. Select one or more diagnostic models that you believe provide a framework that succinctly identifies the key factors at the center of the Boeing situation. Explain your choice of model. The diagnostic model that I found the most relative to the Boeing situation is the 7 Ã¢â¬âS Framework. After reviewing the 7-S Framework; I immediately saw some fundamental similarities in the diversification changes that were made in an attempt to revive Boeing. One supporting point came from the following list; Palmer, Dunford, and Akin (2009). Burk identifies five ways in which organizational models can be useful: 1. ByÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Boeing took a dramatic turn after a manufacturing crisis which required immediate change in all the areas that the 7-S model represents in Figure 5.2 on (p. 125); for instance * Structure Ã¢â¬â new CEO * Overall strategy Ã¢â¬â production and operation changes * Systems Ã¢â¬â updated technologies * Style- the vendor supplier relationships need to be revamped * Staff- at all levels, especially surround the acquisition of McDonnell Douglas There so many other aspects, I think could be examined closer and discussed further; however, the ones presented here; support my assumptions surrounding the 7-S Model being a good diagnosis model in the Boeing case study. Complete Case Study on page 183 of the textbook (Problems at Perrier). Specifically answer two questions at the end of the case study. The first question asks, to identify the key elements of the resistance to change described in this situation. Palmer, Dunford, and Akin (2009, pp. 162-167) list many reasons why people resist change. Some of these key reasons included the following: Dislike of Change, Discomfort with Uncertainty, Perceived Negative Effect on Interests, Attachment to the Established Organizational Culture/ Identity. I wanted to compare some of these reasons and how they have similarities to the Perrier Case Study. A good example of the dislike for change was mentioned in a quote byShow MoreRelatedOrganizational Theory Of Organizational Management1488 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesOrganizational theory studies the various variables that influence the behavior of an individual(s) working within an organization, but also, Ã¢â¬Å"prescribes how work and workers ought to be organized and attempts to explain the actual consequences of organizational behavior (including individual actions) on work being performed and on the organization itself.Ã¢â¬ (Milakovich Gordon, 2013, p.145). Of the many approaches to organizational analysis, Classical Organizational theory has been, even to thisRead MoreThe Management of Organizational Culture3951 Words Ã |Ã 16 PagesTHE MANAGEMENT OF ORGANISATIONAL CULTURE Lesley Willcoxson Bruce Millett ABSTRACT Culture is a term that is used regularly in workplace discussions. It is taken for granted that we understand what it means. The purpose of this paper is to identify and discuss some of the significant issues relating to the management of an organisationÃ¢â¬â¢s culture. As organisational cultures are born within the context of broader cultural contexts such as national or ethic groupings, the paper will commence by definingRead MoreEssay on Organizational Management1843 Words Ã |Ã 8 PagesNormally Organizational change is about the important major changes in an organization such as adding or inclusion of a major new product or services in production as well into the market. It contradicts minor changes within an organization like adoption of new computer software. To make these changes clear, the approach should be made in view from different dimensions. The first type of these changes is the organization-wide verses subsystem change. Organization-wide focuses on major changes inRead MoreEssay on Organizational Management1583 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesManaging Changes Ãâ" Renewing Organizational Structure and Culture In their 2005 book, Understanding and Managing: Organizational Behavior, Jennifer George and Gareth Jones define organizational structure as the formal system of task and reporting relationships that controls, coordinates, and motivates employees so that they cooperate and work together to achieve an organizations goals. A logical consequence to an organizations structure is the resulting culture, which George and Jones furtherRead MoreManagement and Organizational Structure1043 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesOrganizational Structures Ahmed Bassyouni University of Phoenix Sep 28, 2010 William Noble Some organizational theories could explain the EnronÃ¢â¬â¢s failure. Looking at the organizational structure and management of Enron, The structures were flat before the bureaucratic structure developed, then the bureaucratic structures developed in order to increase control. There were vertical structures where there was high level of control and according to theories the organizational circle is movingRead MoreOrganizational Studies And Management Essay1708 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pages Assessment No 1 Individual Essay Dispatched by and prepared for: HRM3008 Organisational Change B.A (Hons) Business and Management (Cohort 5) October 2014 Module Submitted By: Kavita Dhawan (UON ID 14439311) INTRODUCTION Management has been proficient a long time period. Organized endeavors focused by people accountable for planning, organizing, leading, and controlling undertakings have occurred for thousands of yearsRead MoreOrganizational and Corporation Management761 Words Ã |Ã 3 PagesOrganizational management has become more and more important to the corporation management. Meanwhile, the leadership is an important part of organizational management, which can influence to its quality of management. In this essay, we will discuss which behaviour and awareness that a business leader to own, and the snare that they should to avoid in China. We will discuss some behaviour we expect of business leaders can have. Leaders are those who hope that the relationship between the leadersRead MoreOrganizational and Management Theory1394 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesÃ Organization and Management Analysis HCS/514 Managing in TodayÃ¢â¬â¢s Health Care Organizations Organizational Theories Organizational theory as it applies to health care introduces a complex and challenging situation. The health care environment introduces challenges to a structured organization which may not be present in traditional business. For example, measuring output may be difficult in an environment of daily uncertainty, it would be nearly impossible to predict or plan for all ofRead MoreManagement and Organizational Behavior7241 Words Ã |Ã 29 PagesChapter 1: Introducing Organizational Behavior True/False 1. Organizational behavior is the study of human behavior in organizations. Ans: True Difficulty: Easy Response: See page 4 Reference: Introducing Organizational Behavior 2. Learning about organizational behavior will help individuals develop a better work-related understanding about themselves and others. Ans: True Difficulty: Medium Response: See page 4 Reference: Introducing Organizational Behavior 3.Read MoreOrganizational Structure, Culture, Management And The Leadership1536 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pages1. Introduction The aim of the report is to observe and analyse how organisational structure, culture, management and the leadership are helping to function effectively and achieve the organisational goals. I will try to apply as many different theories as possible to support the report. 2. Background of Burberry Burberry is a British luxury fashion brand that was founded in 1896 by Thomas Burberry, after which the company was named and has lived ever since to date. It is easily recognised as
Wednesday, December 11, 2019
Question: Discuss about the Business Law Annetts v Australian Stations (2002). Answer: Introduction In the case of Annetts v Australian Station (2002) 211 CLR 317 acts as a leading matter in the cases related to psychiatric injury, under the tort of negligence and the resultant injuries. In this case, the duty of care which the defendant owed towards the son of the plaintiff, which led to the death of the son, owing to the mental harm was evaluated by the court. The defendant was alleged to have breached his duty of care, which resulted in psychiatric injury to the plaintiff, which was deemed as the plaintiff being harmed. However, in this case, the claims of thee plaintiff were rejected by the court of law (Sappideen, 2009). In the following parts, the case from the perspective of defendant has been analyzed and the decision of the court, along with the rationale behind reaching this decision has been covered. But before initiating the discussion of the defendants arguments, the facts of the case have been highlighted. Facts of the Case The son of applicants, James Annetts, in August of 1986, left his family home in NSW and went to work for the defendant in Western Australia. He was of sixteen at that time (Quizlet, 2017). The mother of James had, before he left to work for the defendant, called him and asked him about the conditions on which James was supposed to work. She was told that James would be working at the Flora Valley and that he would be under constant supervision, that he would be well looked after and would be sharing room with other men (Federation Press, 2017). Even though the assurances were given, Lodger assigned James on October 13th 1986 to work alone as the Nicholson Stations caretaker, which was located hundred kilometers away from where he was promised to be working, i.e., Flora Valley, where he actually worked only for seven weeks. The defendant came to know of the disappearance of the respondent on December 03rd 1986 and he had reasons to suspect that he was in great danger of dying or getting injured. Until December 06th 1986, the plaintiff was not made aware about their son being missing. One of the NSW police officers called the father of James and informed him that James had ran away. Since the father collapsed hearing this news, the mother continued this conversation. After a lot of search for James, through a skeleton he was identified on April 29th 1987. Later on the parties came to know that James had died on December 04th 1986 due to dehydration, hypothermia and exhaustion in Gibson dessert (Federation Press, 2017). The pl aintiff blamed the negligence of defendant for the death of their son. Along with this, they also made a case for the psychiatric injury caused to them when they learned about the death of their son (Health Law Central, 2017). Defendants arguments First and foremost, the defendant would like to offer their condolences to the family for their grave loss. We would like to confirm that the applicant had indeed made certain inquires regarding the agents or servants under the ensuing arrangement, specially pertaining to her sons safety and we had assured the plaintiff that their son would be properly taken care of. However, the defendant would like to highlight that they had taken steps to locate James as soon as they doubted that he might be in danger. A claim has been made against the defendant for the negligence on their part. In order to show that the defendant was not negligent, the basics of negligence have to be revisited. To establish a case of negligence, certain elements are required to be present (Harvey and Marston, 2009). These include a duty of care, its contravention, resulting loss, foreseeability of loss, causation and losses not being too remote (Gibson and Fraser, 2014). The duty of care can be established with the help of the three fold test given in Caparo Industries plc v Dickman  2 AC 605 (E-Law Resources, 2017). In this case, the House of Lords stated that in order to establish a duty of care, there has to be a reasonable foreseeability in the risk of harm, there has to be proximity between the parties and the penalties imposed have to be such which can be deemed as reasonable, fair and just (Lunney and Oliphant, 2013). In this particular instance, the defendant would like to highlight that the duty of care was not owed by defendant to the plaintiff. This is because there is no direct link between the plaintiff and the defendant. The psychiatric injury was not something, which could have been foreseeable in a reasonable manner by the plaintiff. The psychiatric injury did not have a direct causation with the negligence or actions of defendant. Hence, the imposed penalties cannot be just. So a duty of care was not present towards the plaintiff (Australasian Legal Information Institute, 2017). The case of Donoghue v Stevenson  UKHL 100futher affirms this point. In this case, the manufacturer, due to the reasons of being the producer of the product had a duty of care towards the plaintiff and even the presence of dead snail made the losses foreseeable (Latimer, 2012). The defendant in the case of Annetts v Australian Station could never have known that news of the death of son could cause psychiatric injury to the plaintiff and the same was not foreseeable as no one could have predicted that James would die. Hence, a duty of care was not present in the given case. Another point which the defendant would like to raise is that there was negligence on part of the defendant themselves. This is evident from the fact that they sent their underage son to work with a stranger at a completely new place (Australasian Legal Information Institute, 2017). The defendant would also like to highlight the view taken by the judges in Wyong Shire Council v. Shirt (1980) 146 CLR 40. The judges had stated that in order to establish that the risk of harm was indeed foreseeable or not, the view or notions of a reasonable individual had to be considered (Jade, 2017). No one could have forecasted that James would wander off and eventually die. He was not supposed to leave the place where he was placed. And so, a reasonable person could not have forecasted the death of James. And the psychiatric injury was also not foreseeable on part of a reasonable individual, as the risk of such injury was not present (Australasian Legal Information Institute, 2017). The proximity of the relationship, along with the reasonable foreseeability was highlighted by Deane J in Jaensch v Coffey  HCA 52. He stated that to acknowledge that an individual has the capability of predicting, the particular circumstances have to be contemplated. And along with this, the kind of relationship which attracts a lawful duty of acting with reasonable care for the others interest has to be evaluated. So, the foreseeability of harm, in addition to the nature of relationship between the two parties is to be taken as criteria of responsibility (Swarb, 2015). To consider the relationship, the type of work which has been delegated to the employee has to be considered. The defendant agrees that he owed a duty of care towards James, but his duty of care was for the work he was assigned. And if James decided to take off and go somewhere, where he eventually died, cannot be stated as being the breach of duty of care on part of the defendant. This is because the defendant could not have predicted that James would take off like that. The part regarding the psychiatric injury has no legal backing. Even though, in cases of negligence a claim for psychiatric injury can be made. But for that, the elements of negligence have to be satisfied. Here, the duty of care was not present towards the present. And there was no legal relationship between the plaintiff and the defendant. The duty of care which was owed by the defendant was only towards the deceased son of the plaintiff and that too which was reasonable on the basis of quoted cases (Australasian Legal Information Institute, 2017). The defendant would also like to show that a psychiatric injury has to be a sudden shock or has to be direct perception, or the immediate aftermath. In this case, the news of disappearance of their son was given to Mr. and Mrs. Annetts in a phased manner and the news of the death was conveyed over a period of time and at a distance. There was nothing immediate or shocking in it, instead it was agonizingly protracted. Starvation and exhaustion is not something which many have witnessed. And so, there has to be a difference in sudden shock which Annetts received, and what such parents received when they saw their son being run down by a motor car. Hence, the defendant would like to conclude that there is both a relationship between the plaintiff and the defendant and the foreseeability of such a loss (Australasian Legal Information Institute, 2017). Decision of the Court In this case, the Court of Appeal of the Supreme Court of Western Australia unanimously dismissed the appeal made by the plaintiff. The judgment, which is considered as a leading one in this regard, was delivered by Ipp J. In his views, before imposing a duty of care over the defendant for the nervous shock suffered by the plaintiff, the same has to be reasonably foreseeable. A normal fortitude was assumed on part of the plaintiff and the normal standards of susceptibility had to be exhibited in order for the plaintiff to develop the stated psychiatric illness. And secondly, a sudden sensory perception has to be resulted from the contravention of duty of care, in both temporal and physical manner on part of the plaintiff. And this had to be present for an event which was deemed as so distressful that the plaintiff would suffer from a psychiatric illness which was recognizable in nature (Allens, 2017). On the basis of these two points, the imposition of duty of care over the defendant in this case was rejected by the Court of Appeals. It was stated by the court that it could not be held as reasonably foreseeable with regards to the normal fortitude which may uphold a claim for such injury, on the basis of simple fact that the child of the plaintiff had died. An ordinary incident of life is loss of a child and a recognized psychiatric injury is a separate aspect and a different class of harm. There was also a failure on part of the plaintiff to show to the satisfaction of the court that there was a physical proximity between the plaintiff and the defendant in the sense of time and space. They believed that a duty of care was not present as the psychiatric injury occurred quite far from the place of accident and even after the accident had taken place. Hence, the plaintiff was required to appreciate that their son had die, without the fault of the defendant. And so, the appeal of the plaintiff was dismissed (Allens, 2017). References Allens. (2017) 2001 Annual Review Of Insurance Law - Duty Of Care, General Tortious And Trade Practices Act Liability. [Online] Allens. Available from: https://www.allens.com.au/pubs/ari/2001/care.htm [Accessed on: 19/05/17] Australasian Legal Information Institute. (2017) Tame v New South Wales  HCA 35; 211 CLR 317; 191 ALR 449; 76 ALJR 1348 (5 September 2002). [Online] Australasian Legal Information Institute. Available from: https://www.austlii.edu.au/cgi-bin/sinodisp/au/cases/cth/HCA/2002/35.html?stem=0synonyms=0query=Annetts%20v%20Australian%20Station [Accessed on: 19/05/17] E-Law Resources. (2017) Caparo Industries pIc v Dickman  2 AC 605 House of Lords. [Online] E-Law Resources. Available from: https://www.healthlawcentral.com/cases/tame-v-new-south-wales/ [Accessed on: 19/05/17] Federation Press. (2017) Tame v New South Wales Annetts v Australian Stations Pty Ltd. [Online] Federation Press. Available from: https://www.federationpress.com.au/pdf/Tame%20v%20New%20South%20Wales.pdf [Accessed on: 19/05/17] Gibson, A., and Fraser, D. (2014) Business Law 2014. 8th ed. Melbourne: Pearson Education Australia. Harvey, B., and Marston, J. (2009) Cases and Commentary on Tort. 6th ed. New York: Oxford University Press. Health Law Central. (2017) Tame v New South Wales; Annetts v Australian Stations Pty Limited  HCA 35. [Online] Health Law Central. Available from: https://www.healthlawcentral.com/cases/tame-v-new-south-wales/ [Accessed on: 19/05/17] Jade. (2017) Glendale Chemical Products Pty Ltd v Australian Competition Consumer Commission Anor  FCA 1571; 90 FCR 40. [Online] Jade. Available from: https://jade.io/j/?a=outlineid=116054 [Accessed on: 19/05/17] Latimer, P. (2012) Australian Business Law 2012. 31st ed. Sydney, NSW: CCH Australia Limited. Lunney, M., and Oliphant, K. (2013) Tort Law: Text and Materials. 5th ed. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Quizlet. (2017) Torts B Lecture #1--Pure Psychiatric Harm. [Online] Quizlet. Available from: https://quizlet.com/45679268/torts-b-lecture-1-pure-psychiatric-harm-flash-cards/ [Accessed on: 19/05/17] Sappideen, C., at al. (2009) Torts, Commentary and Materials. 10th ed. Pyrmont: Lawbook Co, pp. 255-63. Swarb. (2015) Jaensch v Coffey; 20 Aug 1984. [Online] Swarb. Available from: https://swarb.co.uk/jaensch-v-coffey-20-aug-1984/ [Accessed on: 19/05/17]
Tuesday, December 3, 2019
Rexona-It Wont Let You Down. Essay INTRODUCTION My chosen product category is personal care product and the specific brand chosen within that category is Rexona deodorant which eliminates bad body odors. Rexona is a deodorant brand manufactured by Anglo Dutch Company, Unilever. It was developed in 1908 by an Australian pharmacist and his wife. Currently, Rexona has at least 8 lines of deodorant. Each line features a specific quality sought in deodorants. With Rexonas unique body-responsive technology, which releases extra protection as needed, itÃ¢â¬â¢s known that this deodorant Ã¢â¬Ëwont let you downÃ¢â¬â¢. Rexona is now one of the most preferred deodorants in the local market due to its effective and efficient marketing mix strategies. One of the major marketing mix strategies is the aggressive promotional mix activities performed by Rexona. Each promotional mix had been undertaken by Rexona in assuring its success in the industry. Rexona did their promotion steps through Advertising, Sales Promotion, Public Relations, Personal Selling and Direct Marketing. However, in completing this assignment, two out of the five promotional mix or tools will be explained in detailed which are the Advertising and Public Relations promotion mix activity. Advertising is any paid form of media communication which includes print ads in magazines, trade journals and newspapers, radio and TV announcements, Web-based visibility-building, and billboards. Through advertising, Rexona publish few TV advertisement, commercials and announcement. Public Relations activities promote a positive image, generate publicity and foster goodwill with the intent of increasing sales. We will write a custom essay sample on Rexona-It Wont Let You Down. specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on Rexona-It Wont Let You Down. specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on Rexona-It Wont Let You Down. specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer Generating favorable media coverage, hosting special events and sponsoring charitable campaigns are examples of public relations activities undertaken by Rexona. QUESTIONS 1. Describe the content of the ads in terms of message, visual or picture, and sound (if any) (10 marks). The message which the advertisement tries to deliver to itÃ¢â¬â¢s audience is that when one has bad body odors, it automatically spoils the environment as shown in the advertisement when all the three girls were having so much fun and suddenly one of them stinks, it stops all the fun and thereÃ¢â¬â¢s nothing to be proud of being a fun spoiler. Another message from the advertisement is that it boosts the self confidence of a person. Before using Rexona, the girl with the body odors problem need to be persuaded to join the other two to dance but after eliminating the problem with Rexona Teens spray deodorant, she does not to be convinced anymore to join in the fun. This advertisement also sends a message of being happy and healthy teenagers who know how to take care of their body odors are the perfect kind of teenagers also the perfect attitude teenagers should posses. The picture in the advertisement are all very exciting with colorful paintings, settings and decorations which automatically sets the environment of actives teenagers who never dies out of idea to make their live as interesting as possible. Since this particular range of Rexona Teens were aimed on teenage girls, the visual are set to be as kinky as it can possibly be. In a way, the three beautiful girls used in the advertisement shows other viewers that no matter how beautiful or feminine one are, itÃ¢â¬â¢s alright to admit that one has body odors problem and find a solution towards the problem. Overall, the advertisement presents very attractive pictures and visuals which easily attract teenagers to stay quietly on the respective channel for the next thirty one seconds. The sound used in the advertisement are a very heart pumping, up to beat kind of music sang by the chicky girls, The Spice Girls title Ã¢â¬Å"If You Wanna Be My LoverÃ¢â¬ . This particular song totally pumps up the whole advertisement to be as enjoyable as it can possibly be. When the girls were having so much fun, the song shows the type of fun they were experiencing. However, when they smell something stinky, the song which was on the peak of its chorus suddenly stops like a dead end which gives viewers the feeling of dissatisfied with bad odors. When the commentator was talking about the product, the excitement in the song was once again played on thus it brings out the felling of relief for the viewers. 2. Describe the details of media used by the ad campaign (4 marks). The ad campaign used by Rexona is a TV commercial advertisement which was first shown on our local television on April 2007. This particular advertisement had also been shown several times on our local television that is TV3. Most of the time, this advertisement was played repeatedly in between the popular Indonesian drama titled Ã¢â¬ËBawang Merah, Bawang PutihÃ¢â¬â¢ which is schedule to every Monday to Thursday from 2. 30pm to 3. 30pm. The advertisement also was seen on TV3 during the Ã¢â¬ËThatÃ¢â¬â¢s So RavenÃ¢â¬â¢ show on every Friday at 5. 30pm showing on April 2007 and in between the Ã¢â¬ËLizzie Mc QuireÃ¢â¬â¢ show on every Saturday at 9. 00pm starting May 2007. 3. Describe in detail the target audience of the ad campaign (2 marks). The ad campaign is designed to aim and target the active teenagers who always find ways and means to boost their self confidence and self esteem in pursuing their daily life activities. It is also targeted to teenagers with body odors problem to help them solves their misery. The aim is also on young and chicky teenage girls who loves to pampered and feel good of themselves. 4. Discuss why you believe the ad would appeal to the target audience (7 marks). The first reason is on the approach of the advertisement towards its target audience which is the teenagers. The approached used by the advertising members are based on humors which totally clicked with the mind and thinking of teenagers. The advertisement was quiet hilarious that it will keep on playing in their mind thus creates awareness towards the products automatically. On the other hand, the young teenage girls used for the aid resembled beautiful, cheerful, happy, active and smart teenagers which also drives the teenage viewers to copy their doings and donÃ¢â¬â¢ts which indirectly gives the idea of to be as hip as they are one should be using Rexona Teens deodorant and not others. The excitement, enjoyment and the vibrant energy that is shown in the advertisement would be good enough to appeal to the teenagers. Drama slot such as Ã¢â¬ËBawang Merah, Bawang PutihÃ¢â¬â¢, the Ã¢â¬ËLizzie Mc QuireÃ¢â¬â¢ show and Ã¢â¬ËThatÃ¢â¬â¢s So RavenÃ¢â¬â¢ are mainly watched by teenagers. During these shows, most of the teenagers are in their most feminine mood and especially after watching all the girlish stuff, personal care product would be the first thing they could think of. Repeating the Rexona Teens advertisement during these types of teenagers genre sitcom is among the beat was to inform the target audience the existence of the product. The multimedia technology used in the advertisement is also appealing to the teenagers as it brings the advertisement to a new era and creates the felling of refreshment and up to date kind of satisfaction. With the video conferencing technology shown in the advertisement, it gives teenagers ideas of another activity that can be done to exhilarate the fun. Thus, whenever these teenagers plans to established their video on the net which most teenagers nowadays do, it gives them the idea of Rexona Teens advertisement. 5. Describe the promotion activity used (4 marks). You may attach any picture or details in the appendix. The promotion activity used by Rexona is public relations. With effective public relations, Rexona can increase sales through favorable, nonpaid media coverage and enhance their companys image. Rexona generate publicity through special events, sponsorships, and community activities. On July 2005, Rexona once again held the Rexona Ã¢â¬Å"No SweatÃ¢â¬ Challenge and on that particular year the challenge was a team dance competition. The dance challenge will be translated into a 9 episode reality TV show. The Rexona Ã¢â¬Å"No Sweat Dance ChallengeÃ¢â¬ program will be broadcasted at TV3 from 9th August 2007 onwards, on every Tuesday at 7pm. The dance team will get a chance to show off their dance talent on national TV watched by millions. Public relations build goodwill toward the business by raising Rexona CompanyÃ¢â¬â¢s profile in the public eye. Publicity is considered as free advertising. 6. Discuss the coordination between the advertisement and the promotion activity stated in Question 5 (8 marks). Both the advertising in the form of TV commercials and public relations through Rexona Ultimate Dance Challenge bring out the same message to the audience and the target market. Through effective public relation activities, Rexona manages to build a good name and reputation in the eyes of the society thus, with this strong idea of Rexona instilled in the mind of the society and the enhancement of advertising such as TV commercials, it creates a strong preference of Rexona products to the consumers. It can also be done the other way round which means through the effective advertising effort perform by Rexona and being boost up with the public relations activity tells the consumers the credibility of Rexona Company thus eliminates the skepticism of the society towards Rexona products. The advertisement on TV commercials and The Rexona Ultimate Dance Challenge is both targeted on the younger generation and to be more specifically on the teenagers who love to express their feelings through stuff like dancing and etc. The TV commercial intends to create the awareness and to inform the buyers the existence of the product and sometimes it is also through advertising that the buyer are influences to purchase Rexona product. However, nowadays, consumer are getting smarter and are not easily influenced by advertising strategies and techniques which are paid by the company themselves to promote their product thus, obviously the advertisement will promote the product without a single negative point. Hence, usually this is when other promotional mix activity plays their role indirectly in convincing consumers the reliability of RexonaÃ¢â¬â¢s product information as shown in advertisement through public relations. Strong public relations let it be in form of organizing events, sponsorship or community activity, the main objectives is to create the relationship with the society and in a way indirectly asking the society to accept Rexona product. Through organizing big events such as The Rexona Ultimate Dance Competition, Rexona shows the society the level and credibility of the company in organizing such an esteem event. Hence, it established a felling of confidence and loyalty by the consumers towards Rexona Company. Bibliography ?Rexona Ultimate Dance Challenge. Retrieved on 10th September 2008, from http://www. unilever. com. my/ourcompany/newsandmedia/pressreleases/rexona_Ultimatedancechallenge. asp ? Rexona Unilever. Retrieved on 10th September 2008, from http://www. nilever. com/ourbrands/personalcare/Rexona. asp ? How to Established A Promotional Mix. Retrieved on 10th September 2008, from http://www. esmalloffice. com/SBR_template. cfm? DocNumber=PL12_3600. htm ? Rexona. Retrieved on 10th September 2008, from http://en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Rexona ? Rexona Teens Bedroom. Retrieved on 10th September 2008, from http://www. youtube. com/watch? v=Sq_cUGG8bWE ? Malaysia Rexona Commercial. Retrieved on 10th September 2008, from http://www. youtube. com/watch? v=EJaoHJYU4mI